# Lesson: Answering Certain Question Types

## Comment on Answering Certain Question Types

### My answer for the first

My answer for the first paragraph (meteor streams) was D. I thought this was correct because we are discussing two natural phenomena right? First, a meteor stream is described, then a meteor shower is explained, and t is also described how these two are related: that a meteor shower occurs when earth passes through a meteor stream. Where am I going wrong here? (thanks for your help)

### Aside: This is an official

Aside: This is an official GMAT question.

In their solution, the test-makers state "only a single phenomenon is described in the passage," but I think you have raised a valid point. It seems that the passage describes both a meteor stream and meteor shower is explained.

However, I wouldn't say that the passage demonstrates a way to measure BOTH of them (as answer choice D states)

### would you plz summarize the

would you plz summarize the first passage (meteor stream)
thanks

Or I might even write: Model confirms 1 theory but not other.

### https://gmatclub.com/forum

question 7 why not b sir??

7. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author’s assertion that, in the 1970’s, corporate response to federal requirements (lines 18-19) was substantial
(A) Corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses totaled \$2 billion in 1979.
(B) Between 1970 and 1972, corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses declined by 25 percent.
(C) The figures collected in 1977 underrepresented the extent of corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses.
(D) The estimate of corporate spending with minority-owned businesses in 1980 is approximately \$10 million too high.
(E) The \$1.1 billion represented the same percentage of total corporate spending in 1977 as did \$77 million in 1972.

Here's the portion that deals with the above question:
"Corporate response appears to have been substantial. According to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority businesses rose from \$77 million in 1972 to \$1.1 billion in 1977."

So, contracts rose from 1972 to 1977.
Answer choice B talks about what happened BEFORE 1972, so it has no bearing on the rise from 1972 to 1977.

Answer choice E, however, suggests that the increase from 1972 to 1977 was not an increase at all, if you look at the PROPORTION of all corporate spending.
So, for example, if in 1972, \$77 million represented 10% of all corporate spending, and in 1977, \$1.1 billion represented 10% of all corporate spending, then one might argue that corporate response to federal requirements was NOT substantial.

Does that help?

Cheers,
Brent

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

Please refer the passage : https://gmatclub.com/forum/when-the-object-designated-1992-qb1-was-discovered-news-reports-231027.html

Could you please explain why is answer choice B incorrect for Q No. 2(The passage author implies which of the following about news reports concerning 1992 QB1?)? I know why D is correct but unable to figure out the logic behind eliminating B.

Thanks & Regards,
Abhirup

Here's question #2:

The passage author implies which of the following about news reports concerning 1992 QB1?

(A) They exaggerated astronomers' excitement about the object.
(B) They contained inaccurate information about the size of the object.
(C) They initially reported that the object was in the Kuiper Belt.
(D) They incorrectly identified the object as a planet.
(E) They prematurely identified the object as an ice dwarf.

The passage says "When the object designated 1992 QB1 was discovered, news reports suggested that there were now ten known planets in our Solar System. In fact, the object is too small to qualify as a planet"

This doesn't suggest that the reports were wrong about 1992 QB1's SIZE. Instead, the reports were wrong to suggest that 1992 QB1 was a planet.

Here's an analogous passage.
When I first saw my friend's dog, I told everyone that my friend owned a Saint Bernard. In fact, the dog is too small to be a Saint Bernard.

The passage doesn't suggest that I was wrong about the SIZE of the dog; the passage suggests I was wrong to classify the dog as a Saint Bernard.

Does that help?

Cheers,
Brent

### Yes Brent I got it now!! As

Yes Brent I got it now!! As always your explanations make life so easy.

Thanks, Abhirup!

### https://gmatclub.com/forum

https://gmatclub.com/forum/many-scholars-have-theorized-that-economic-development-83983.html

The passage says "these cantons often shared OTHER characteristics—similar linguistic background and strong leftist parties—that may help to explain this phenomenon."

Answer choice A: These cantons shared characteristics OTHER THAN urbanization that may have contributed to their implementation of women's suffrage.

Cheers,
Brent

### https://gmatclub.com/forum

The passage says "Researchers also measured land-tenure security: in Tawahka society, kinship ties are a more important indicator of this [land-tenure security] than are legal property rights."

In other words, when it comes to land-tenure security, kinship ties are greater than legal property rights.

Answer choice A - part i: The security of a household's land tenure depends on the strength of that household's kinship ties. This is a great match with the passage.
--------------------------------------

The passage goes on to say ". . . so researchers measured it [land-tenure security] by a household’s duration of residence in its village."

Answer choice A - part ii: The duration of a household's residence in its village is an indication of the strength of that household's kinship ties. This aligns perfectly with the passage.

Cheers,
Brent

### https://gmatclub.com/forum

Question 2: In using the word “understandable” (line 14), the author most clearly conveys

That part of the passage reads "In the Pullman contest Randolph faced formidable obstacles. The first was Black workers' UNDERSTANDABLE skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership."

KEY INFORMATION: We're told it took Randolph TEN YEARS to get his union recognized. Then we're told that, the union was finally recognized in 1935. So, Randolph would have begun his quest in the 1920's.

Now let's examine the answer choices...

(A) sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent union
There's a timing problem with this answer choice.
At line 14 in the passage, we're examining Randolph's EARLY years leading the Brotherhood. So, when we get to "Black workers' UNDERSTANDABLE skepticism," we have no idea that Randolph will be experiencing difficulties from 1925 to 1935.
ELIMINATE A

(B) concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable
Same timing problem as in answer choice A.
ELIMINATE B

(C) ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920’s
There's nothing to suggest Black workers were ambivalent about the significance of unions.
ELIMINATE C

(D) appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920’s toward unions
The time frame works!
The Black workers were skeptical, and this was understandable (Since Black workers were historically barred from union membership).
KEEP D

(E) regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers
The passage reads "The first was Black workers' UNDERSTANDABLE skepticism toward unions..."
There's no mention or suggestion of regret here.
ELIMINATEE

Cheers,
Brent

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

I have a big problem with understanding the reason why the answer choice C is the correct one:

The author mentions which of the following as a disadvantage of urban employment for Latin American women in the lowest socioeconomic group?

A. It is difficult for these women to obtain reliable, long-term employment.
B. It is difficult for these women to organize effectively in order to obtain better wages.
C. It is difficult for these women to find employers who are supportive when emergencies arise.
D. The structure of their jobs makes it difficult for these women to participate in exchange networks.
E. Working in urban areas makes these women more vulnerable to health problems than they would be in rural areas.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/while-acknowledging-that-there-are-greater-employment-opportunities-fo-84343.html

I picked D, at least in the answer choice D the only disadvantage about "structure", which was vividly stated at the end of the second paragraph, is mentioned.

Could you explain why choice C is correct and D is wrong?

For question 3, the correct answer is B.

Here's the portion of the passage that supports this: However, the structure of many poor women’s work-often a labor force of one in an employer’s home-makes it difficult for them to organize to improve their economic conditions in general.

"In addition, working outside the home, which is more common in urban than in rural areas, helps women in the lowest socioeconomic class make contacts to extend exchange networks-the flow of gifts, loans, or child care from those who currently have access to resources to those who do not."

Cheers,
Brent

Hi Brent,

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

I have a problem with such type of question:

5. The author of the passage would most likely react to a claim that Latin American women have not made good use of the resources available to them by

A. expressing strong disagreement
B. offering cautious dissent because of specific case studies
C. withholding judgment because of insufficient evidence
D. offering tentative support because of some circumstantial evidence
E. concurring fully with the claim

https://gmatclub.com/forum/while-acknowledging-that-there-are-greater-employment-opportunities-fo-84343.html

Could you please explain why answer choice A is better than B? I don't know even how to approach such questions, since there is no explicitly stated information about authors opinion, or maybe I missed some.

This is a "tone" question, and this question type of often difficult.

The answer can be found at the bottom of the passage: "In general, urban migration has not provided economic prosperity or upward mobility for women in the lowest socioeconomic class, despite their INTELLIGENT and ENERGETIC UTILIZATION of the resources available to them."
In other words, Latin American women HAVE definitely made good use of the resources available to them

In order for us to choose B, the passage would need to include some information that suggests these women have NOT made good use of available resources.

Does that help?

Cheers,
Brent

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

Could you please tell why A is incorrect and B is correct:

3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the execution of those procedures
(B) outline a problem related to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the results of an experiment bearing on that problem
(C) present experimental results that illustrate the need for certain wildlife management procedures and point out some inconsistencies in those results
(D) argue that a certain procedure used for wildlife management should be modified because of its unintended consequences
(E) propose that further experiments be performed to assess the long-term effects of certain wildlife management procedures

https://gmatclub.com/forum/grassland-songbirds-often-nest-in-the-same-grassland-wetland-complexes-200037.html

(A) describe some procedures used for wildlife management and consider some problems associated with the EXECUTION of those procedures
Answer choice A is incorrect, because there's nothing in the passage that suggests there were difficulties in executing the procedures.

For example, the passage says "Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains difficult to predict."
The passage doesn't say there were difficulties EXECUTING the habitat enhancement or restoration.

(B) outline a PROBLEM RELATED to a wildlife management procedure and offer potential explanations for the RESULT of an experiment bearing on that problem .
Consider this part of the passage: "Although some wildlife management procedures directed at waterfowl, such as habitat enhancement or restoration, may also benefit songbirds, the impact of others, especially the control of waterfowl predators, remains DIFFICULT TO PREDICT"
If these procedures are difficult to predict, then this is a PROBLEM RELATED to a wildlife management procedure.

Later in the passage, we're told of an experiment (trapping and removing certain waterfowl nest predators) and potential explanations of the RESULTS are offered ("This may be due to several factors. Neither raccoons nor striped skunks consume ground squirrels, which are important predators of songbird nests.")

Cheers,
Brent

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

Do you know why C is the correct answer:

What are those instances?

4. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) explaining why a particular phenomenon is so rare

(B) criticizing a method used to gather data about a natural phenomenon

(C) considering possible instances of a particular phenomenon

(D) distinguishing among several different kinds of natural phenomena

(E) questioning a widely accepted explanation for an unusual phenomenon

From <https://gmatclub.com/forum/astronomers-theorize-that-a-black-hole-forms-when-a-massive-object-147401.html>

(C) considering POSSIBLE instances of a particular phenomenon
The "particular phenomenon" here is the potential existence of black holes.

One part reads: "For example, observations indicate that gas clouds in galaxy M87 are whirling unusually fast about the galaxy’s center. Most astronomers believe that the large concentration of mass at the galaxy’s center is a black hole whose gravity is causing the gas to whirl."
So, this is one possible instance of a black hole.

The second paragraph discusses observations form galaxy NGC 4258. Once again, these observations suggest the possible instance of a black hole.

Does that help?

Cheers,
Brent

The passage discusses two possible locations of black holes (the phenomenon). One possible location is in galaxy M87, and another is in galaxy NGC 4258.

(C) considering possible instances of a particular phenomenon

This looks good.

Cheers,
Brent

Thank you BRENT,

Now I Understand

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

Could you please tell why A and B are incorrect,

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

(A) a study suggesting that the semiconductor industry’s approach to patenting during the period from 1982 to 1992 yielded unanticipated results
(B) a study of the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992 that advocates certain changes in the industry’s management of the patenting process
(C) the connection between patenting and innovation in the semiconductor industry during the period from 1982 to 1992
(D) reasons that investment in research and development in the semiconductor industry did not increase significantly during the period from 1982 to 1992
(E) certain factors that made the period from 1982 to 1992 a time of intense patenting activity in the semiconductor industry

From <https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-system-of-patent-granting-which-confers-temporary-monopolies-for-176226.html>

Here's a summary:
- Patents introduced to encourage innovation.
- Semiconductor studies show this is not necessarily the case
- More patents, but lower quality,
- No commensurate innovation
- Possible explanation for above phenomenon

The key word here is PRIMARILY.
As in "The passage is PRIMARILY concerned with discussing"

Answer choice A describes a PORTION of the passage. However, that PORTION is part of a larger idea.
We might keep A for now, and see if something better comes along.

Answer choice C best describes the main idea.

Cheers,
Brent

### Thank you very much Brent,

Thank you very much Brent,

Nice explanation,

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

I have a huge problem with this question,

Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine the possible explanation for the whirling gas in M87 that is mentioned in the last sentence of the first paragraph?

(A) The stars in a star cluster at the center of M87 could exert a strong gravitational force without tearing the cluster apart.

(B) A cluster of stars at the center would preclude the existence of certain other astronomical phenomena that have been observed at the center of M87.

(C) The stars within many existing galaxies, such as NGC 4258, are more closely spaced than are the stars within the core of M87.

(D) Only one other galaxy has been observed to contain gas clouds whirling about its center as they do about the core of M87.

(E) The gravitational force of a cluster of a billion or so dim stars would be sufficient to cause a whirling ring of gas and dust to collect around the center of a galaxy.

From <https://gmatclub.com/forum/astronomers-theorize-that-a-black-hole-forms-when-a-massive-object-147401.html>

For me B is the least plausable answer,

Why this is a correct choice and why A and C are incorrect,

Could you please explain, what thought process should I have and what information in the passage should I reexamine in order to answer this question correctly(before going thought the answer choices what should I look for?)

Here's the possible explanation: A few skeptics have argued that the concentration of mass necessary to explain the speed of the whirling gas is not necessarily a black hole: the concentration in M87 might be a cluster of a billion or so dim stars.

Answer choice A undermines the explanation for the possible black hole in galaxy NGC 4258 (not M87).
In NGC 4258, we have a much different situations (i.e., core’s density is more than 40 times the density estimated for any other galaxy.
Eliminate A.

The possible explanation is that "the concentration in M87 might be a cluster of a billion or so dim stars."
Answer choice C actually helps the possible explanation by suggesting that a cluster of a billion or so dim stars is not uncommon.

Answer choice B says that, if such a cluster of stars existed, then certain phenomena (that are presently observed) would NOT be observed.
This certainly undermines the possible explanation.

Does that help?

### Very tricky,

Very tricky,

Thank you for your time, Brent,

Nice explanation,

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

Could you please explain why the answer choice D is correct and A and B are incorrect,

.The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. present evidence that several phocids species use the maternal fasting strategy

B. explain why the maternal strategy typically used by phocids is different from the maternal strategy used by otariids

C. argue that zoologists 'current understanding of harbor seals' maternal strategy is incorrect

D. describe an unexpected behavior observed in harbor seals and propose an explanation that may account for the behavior

E. describe evidence concerning the maternal strategy of the harbor seal and suggest that the harbor seal belongs to the otariid rather than to the phocids family

From <https://gmatclub.com/forum/until-recently-zoologists-believed-that-all-species-of-phocids-true-219274.html>

For me, D is too narrow and only concerns the second paragraph whereas A encompasses the whole paragraph

What do you think?

The passage summary goes something like this:

- Otas forage throughout lactation
- Phos believed to fast during lactation
- Harbors (type of Pho) differ from other Phos because they forage during lactation.
- Harbors are smaller than other Phos. So, Harbors don't have as much blubber. Also, Harbors are same size as Otas.
- Rings (type of Pho) are also small AND may also use forage during lactaction.
- Implied theory: foraging during lactation are related to size (not taxonomy).

Main idea: contrary to popular beliefs, not all Pho's behave the same.

(D) Looks pretty good!
(A) This is true, but not the primary purpose of the passage. The passage goes beyond this.
(B) Not quite. It's more about why the maternal strategy typically used by SOME phocids is different from that of other phocids (not otariids).

Cheers,
Brent

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

Sorry, but I still don't get it.

You yourself wrote "Main idea: contrary to popular beliefs, not all Pho's behave the same."

Wich has the same breadth as " describe an unexpected behavior observed in harbor seals and propose an explanation that may account for the behavior"

still, don't get why A is worse than D,

If you have patience to rephrase your explanation I would be really grateful,

### A. present evidence that

A. present evidence that several phocids species use the maternal fasting strategy
This answer choice suggests that the MAIN idea is concerned with showing that many phocids behave the same way.
While it's definitely true that many phocids behave the same way, this isn't the main idea.

Likewise, we're told that "harbor seals use 80 percent of their fat stores in just the first 19 days of lactation," but this fact isn't the main idea of the passage.

The main thrust of the argument is to compare and contrast similarities and differences. Once the similarities and difference have been examined, the author goes on to indirectly suggest an explanation for the similarities and differences.

Does that help?

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

First of all, thank you for your patience,

After rereading the passage again and again I noticed, that at least 60% of the passage is about harbor seals(starting at the end of the first paragraph and until the very end of the second). The beginning was an introduction to all phocids and their comparison to otariids. The passage states that prior belief was that those two groups of species have disparate behaviors when it comes to maternal strategy. And eventually, harbor seals are presented as an exception that violates prior beliefs, so that the focus of the passage diverts to harbor seals and their being special and why that happens.

Do you think I understand now the whole structure and my reasoning are correct?

### Yes I think that's an

Yes I think that's an accurate summary of the passage

Amazing,

Thank you Brent,

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

The author of the passage implies which of the following about the poetry mentioned in the first paragraph?
A. Wulf exaggerates the degree to which young women from an elite background regarded the poetry as providing a critique of marriage.
B. The circulation of the poetry was confined to young Quaker women.
C. Young women copied the poetry into their commonplace books because they interpreted it as providing a desirable model of unmarried life.
D. The poetry’s capacity to influence popular attitudes was restricted by the degree of literacy necessary to comprehend it.
E. The poetry celebrated marital beliefs and practices that were in opposition to patriarchal marriage.

Could you please explain why E and B are incorrect and why D is the best answer

(B) All we know is that the young Quakers exchanged poetry critical of marriage. However, we aren't told that this was the ONLY group that did this.

(E) All we are told is that the poetry was "critical of marriage." There is no mention of HOW the poetry was critical of marriage. Also, there's no mention of the poetry CELEBRATING certain beliefs and practices.

(D) The passage states "At least three years’ study would be necessary to achieve the literacy competence necessary to grapple with the material she analyzes."

Cheers,
Brent

### Thank you very much Brent for

Thank you very much Brent for the explanation,

Good one,

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

According to the author of the passage, which of the following is true of the distribution of the income derived from the total output of consumer goods in a modern economy?

https://gmatclub.com/forum/seventeenth-century-philosopher-john-locke-stated-that-as-much-as-190904.html

Can you please explain why E is an incorrect answer and why then it is better than C.

The passage tells us:
"In modern economies about one-third of the total output of consumer goods is attributable to the use of capital goods.

"[1/3 of the income] serves as compensation to the owners of the capital goods. Moreover, part of this remaining third is received by workers who are shareholders, pension beneficiaries, and the like.

In other words, capital is responsible for 1/3 of the output and, in return, the owners receive 1/3 of the profit, PART OF WHICH they pay to workers. In other words, the owners of capital goods receive LESS THAN 1/3 of the profits, even though their capital goods account for 1/3 of the output.

(C) Owners of capital goods receive a share of this income that is no greater than the proportion of total output attributable to the use of capital goods.
This is a great match.

(E) Workers receive a share of this income that is greater than the value of their labor because the labor theory of value overestimates their contribution to total output.
The first part of this makes sense, since the workers 2/3 of the profits PLUS more money of they're shareholders etc. However, the REASON given for the 2/3+ notion goes beyond the passage.
We can't say that worker's receive more than 2/3 of the profits BECAUSE "the labor theory of value overestimates their contribution to total output."

### Got it,

Got it,

So if E were without the "because..." It would be correct?

E) Workers receive a share of this income that is greater than the value of their labor (now for me it conveys the same meaning as in C)

### In that case (without the

In that case (without the BECAUSE part), E would also be true

### Hi Brent,

Hi Brent,

I have a problem with this question,

Which of the following best describes the primary function of lines 11–16?

A. It offers a reconsideration of a claim made in the preceding sentence.
B. It reveals how archaeologists arrived at an interpretation of the evidence mentioned in the preceding sentence.
C. It shows how scholars misinterpreted the significance of certain evidence mentioned in the preceding sentence.
D. It identifies one of the first significant accounts of seventeenth-century European settlements in North America.
E. It explains why Denys’s account of seventeenth-century European settlements is thought to be significant.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/exactly-when-in-the-early-modern-era-native-americans-began-exchanging-242703.html

I know that B is the correct answer, but I am confused about why?

What was mentioned in the preceding sentence according to this sentence "It reveals how archaeologists arrived at an interpretation of the evidence mentioned in the preceding sentence."?

1. evidence
OR
2. interpretation of the evidence

In other words, does "mentioned" as a past participle modifier modifies only the nearest "evidence" or the whole "interpretation of the evidence"

If only "evidence" then I can agree that "Archaeologists had
noticed that sixteenth-century Native American
sites were strewn with iron bolts and metal
pins." is the evidence but not an interpretation of the evidence.

Is this sentence also ambiguous for you Brent, and If yes how would you fix this sentence to make it clear that we modify only "evidence"

I don't think "that" can fix the issue either.

It reveals how archaeologists arrived at an interpretation of the evidence THAT IS mentioned in the preceding sentence. Still ambiguous.

"Archaeologists had noticed that sixteenth-century Native American sites were strewn with iron bolts and metal pins"
Hmmm, a MYSTERY! So the iron bolts and metal pins are the EVIDENCE preceding lines 11–16.

In lines 11 - 16, we have: "Only later, upon reading Nicolas Denys’s 1672 account of seventeenth-century European settlements in North America, did archaeologists realize that sixteenth-century European fishing crews had dismantled and exchanged parts of their ships for furs."
We aren't told what exactly Nicolas Denys wrote in his 1672 account, but it seems that his account of events cleared up the MYSTERY of the iron bolts and metal pins (the crews has dismantled and exchanged parts of their ships for furs).

We can say that Nicolas Denys’s 1672 ACCOUNT explains how those iron bolts and metal pins became strewn over the sites.

Cheers,
Brent

### Thank you, Brent,

Thank you, Brent,

But the biggest issue was with the question itself.

Consider this sentence:

Where is the evaluation of the paper submitted to the scientific journal yesterday?

Was the paper submitted?
or
The evaluation of the paper?

the same confusion is with

It reveals how archaeologists arrived at an interpretation of the evidence mentioned in the preceding sentence.

What was mentioned in the preceding sentence?

1. evidence
OR
2. interpretation of the evidence

In other words, does "mentioned" as a past participle modifier modifies only the nearest "evidence" or the whole "interpretation of the evidence"

As I said it is more SC than RC question,