Lesson: Parallelism - Part IV

Comment on Parallelism - Part IV

This maybe a silly question but I thought I should ask, in the last dissection of sentence shouldn't it be a participial phrase "caused by sufficient sleep and by low blood sugar levels" since its modifying "stressful conditions" as an adjective
gmat-admin's picture

Adding "by" would not be wrong, but we don't really need it. For example, we can say "Joe likes to travel by bus, train and plane" or we can say ""Joe likes to travel by bus, by train and by plane." Both are correct.

Wow great explanation , i loved the break down. I have been going through your videos. Great Job, thank you.
gmat-admin's picture

Thanks for the kind words!

Dr H contends that individuals .....
....... will respond negatively under stressful conditions ......., and that these individuals will benefit

my question is , can we write
......., and will benefit
making 'will respond' and 'will benefit' parallel

i can sense that my explanation is wrong ...but it is not clear in my head ...can you please help
gmat-admin's picture

Tough one.

If we write "...and will benefit...", I think it's unclear who or what will benefit. There are just too many words in between "will respond" and "will benefit" to be able to see the parallelism.

Hi I am sorry I have a similar question here,
Dr.H contends that individuals who have experienced emotional trauma in a hospital setting and witnessed others in similar circumstances…. here before ‘witnessed’

1.can I change it to be ‘have witnessed’ to make it parallel to ‘have experienced’?
2. Or can I just not insert anything before ‘witnessed’ to make ‘witnessed’ parallel to ‘experienced’?

I am not sure where in the sentence I should start the parallelism….

Thank you very much!
gmat-admin's picture

If we say "People have experienced trauma and witnessed others," then there are two different tenses at play.

The present perfect tense, "have experienced," suggests that the experiencing has occurred in the past AND may continue into the present and future

The simple past tense, "witnessed," suggests that the witnessing occurred in the past.

If the experiencing and the witnessing have both occurred in the past AND may continue into the present and future, then we need HAVE in front of "experienced" and "witnessed".

Hi Brent, first you are awesome.
2nd, if we didn't replace "they" with "these individuals". will the sentence remain correct?
gmat-admin's picture

Some will argue that, since we have the structure "Dr. Higgins contents THAT individuals . . . . and THAT they . . .", then it's obvious that "they" refers to those individuals.

Others will argue that, since there are SO MANY words preceding "they" that "they" could be referring to "others," "circumstances," "conditions" or "levels"

It's hard to say what the official test-makers would think of this sentence. However, I think it's usually a safe bet to always try to avoid any potential for ambiguity.

Pls help me with the following question:

During the rule of Emperor Claudius, which was known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome exceeded any city in the Roman Empire.

a)which was known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome exceeded any

b)known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome was exceeded by no other

c)known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome exceeded that of any

d)known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, ancient Rome exceeded any

e)known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, the population of ancient Rome exceeded that of any other

While I understand the parallelism error in the question and that Options C & E address that error; I want to understand the structure of the resulting sentence.

During the rule of Emperor Claudius, --> Prepositional Phrase, --> How do we explain the role of , here as the connector?

known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, --> known for ..., --> What will we call the phrase starting with known? What part of speech will be known?

the population of ancient Rome exceeded that of any other city in the Roman Empire. --> Noun Phrase
gmat-admin's picture

The phrase "known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti" is a participial phrase that tells us more about Emperor Claudius.

The commas separate this non-vital modifier from the rest of the sentence. For more on non-vital modifiers, see: https://www.gmatprepnow.com/module/gmat-sentence-correction/video/1166

Also, notice that we could have also placed the participial phrase first and offset it with brackets, as in:

"Known for his military expeditions against the German tribes of the Chauci and Catti, Emperor Claudius..."

The last part of the sentence ("...the population of ancient Rome exceeded that of any other city in the Roman Empire.") is an independent clause (the subject is POPULATION and the verb is EXCEEDED).

Does that help?

Cheers,
Brent

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