Lesson: Comparisons - Part I

Comment on Comparisons - Part I

The videos are ineffable.Thanks a lot.
gmat-admin's picture

Glad you like them!

can we say..?

In addition to having more teeth than a piranha has, a barracuda's teeth are larger than a piranha has.

Like we do in 'does' example.. seems so simple to me to do the correction rather than using the 'that' relative clause modifier.
gmat-admin's picture

There's a big comparison issue with that sentence. Once we read, "In addition to having more teeth than a piranha has...," we should asks "What has more teeth than a piranha has?" The part the follows should answer that question.

Reading on, we get, "a barracuda's teeth ...."

Hmm, a barracuda's TEETH have more teeth than a piranha has? That makes no sense. As such, this is a faulty comparison.

I LOVE YOUR VIDEOS. ITS LIKE TAKING LIVE SESSIONS. BEAUTIFULLY EXPRESSED.
I AM FOLLOWING 60 DAY GMAT PREP TEST AND READY4GMAT APP ALONG WITH OG2017. BECAUSE OF THE JOB I AM QUITE BEHIND SCHEDULE AND HAVE MISSED CERTAIN 60 DAY PREP SESSIONS. IS IT ALRIGHT IF THE 60 DY PREP STRETCHED TO BEYOND 100 DAYS WITHOUT FEELING GUILTY ABOUT IT?
gmat-admin's picture

You're referring to Beat The GMAT's free 60-Day Study Guide (http://www.beatthegmat.com/mba/gmat-guide)

The time it takes to complete each day's activities will vary from person to person. Also, some days take longer to complete.

If you're having difficulties keeping up, don't worry. You can take longer than a day to complete the activities if you run out of time. Plus, later on in the Guide, much of your time is spent working on weaknesses (i.e., not learning new content).

I hope that helps.

Cheers,
Brent

Brent,

In 3:59, if I write "Barracuda's teeth are larger than piranha's teeth, in addition a barracuda has more teeth than a piranha has." is this phrase correct?
gmat-admin's picture

Close.

First we need some articles "a" AND we need some different punctuation.

The following would be fine: A barracuda's teeth are larger than a piranha's teeth, and a barracuda has more teeth than a piranha has.

Really good description, I just wish to have started watching them early. :)
gmat-admin's picture

Thanks!

My brain might be fried but in the corrected sentence,"...a barracuda has teeth that are larger than a piranha's teeth", shouldn't it be "...a barracuda has teeth that are larger than a piranha's." I feel like teeth should be tooth if the sentence was kept.
gmat-admin's picture

Great question!

Both of those sentences are considered correct.
This concept is explained in the following video: https://www.gmatprepnow.com/module/gmat-sentence-correction/video/1174

Cheers,
Brent

Hi Brent,

In the sentence: Mike dislikes broccoli more than his girlfriend.
Let's say that the intended meaning is about Mike disliking broccoli more than he dislikes his girlfriend.

So I suppose the sentence would be: Mike dislikes broccoli more than he dislikes his girlfriend.

Is this a correct sentence?
gmat-admin's picture

In that case, your sentence would be correct.

Hi Brent,

Could you tell please why B is wrong?

Unlike the short flights of the shuttle and earlier spacecraft, which carried sufficient power in fuel cells and batteries, a permanently orbiting space station will have to generate its own electricity.


A. the short flights of the shuttle and earlier spacecraft, which carried sufficient power in fuel cells and batteries

B. the shuttle and earlier spacecraft, with sufficient enough power in fuel cells and batteries for their short flights

C. the short flights of the shuttle and earlier spacecraft, which enabled them to carry sufficient enough power in fuel cells and batteries

D. the shuttle and earlier spacecraft, which were capable of carrying sufficient power in fuel cells and batteries for their short flights

E. the flights of the shuttle and earlier spacecraft, whose shortness allowed them to carry sufficient power in fuel cells and batteries
gmat-admin's picture

B) Unlike the shuttle and earlier spacecraft, with SUFFICIENT ENOUGH power in fuel cells and batteries for their short flights, a permanently orbiting space station will have to generate its own electricity.

SUFFICIENT and ENOUGH are synonymous. So using both words is redundant.
It's like saying "The balloon DESCENDED DOWNWARDS.

Cheers,
Brent

Thank you very much Brent

Hi Brent,

https://gmatclub.com/forum/according-to-united-states-census-data-while-there-was-about-one-thir-80584.html

On GMATCLUB the biggest problem with all but C was with "young children working and not mothers working"

Is there also a problem with "those vs such"?

Do I understand correctly that we can eliminate A, B because of "those" which literally means "those same mothers from the year 1975"

"Such mothers" on the other hand = mothers that share same qualities in terms of their status "mothers who worked while having young children"

BTW, is this sentence correct according to GMAT standards: "In 2000 mothers who worked while having young children were much unhappier than mothers who worked but didn't have children"

Thank you in advance,
gmat-admin's picture

Link: https://gmatclub.com/forum/according-to-united-states-census-data-while-...

No, there's no distinction here between SUCH and THOSE.
In A and B it is clear that we're discussing women with young children. So, THOSE WOMEN and SUCH WOMEN would pertain to the same women.

BTW, is this sentence correct according to GMAT standards: "In 2000 mothers who worked while having young children were much unhappier than mothers who worked but didn't have children"

That sentence is so-so. There's a slight problem with "while having young children"
It's somewhat awkward to say a woman is working and having children.
e.g., At the moment, Claire is working and having children

Also, a mother who doesn't have children isn't a "mother"

Cheers,
Brent

Hi Brent,

Could you please tell me why D is incorrect and why B is correct?

In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores; by 1997 they had spent nearly six hours a week.


(A) chores; by 1997 they had spent nearly six hours a week

(B) chores; by 1997 that figure had grown to nearly six hours a week

(C) chores, whereas nearly six hours a week were spent in 1997

(D) chores, compared with a figure of nearly six hours a week in 1997

(E) chores, that figure growing to nearly six hours a week in 1997

Thank you in advance,
gmat-admin's picture

Link: https://gmatclub.com/forum/in-1981-children-in-the-united-states-spent-a...

D) In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores, COMPARED WITH a figure of nearly six hours a week in 1997.
We have an illogical comparison.
The modifying phrase that starts with COMPARED WITH appears to modify the nearest noun (CHORES).
So, here, we're comparing CHORES with some FIGURE.
No good.

A) In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores; by 1997 they HAD SPENT nearly six hours a week
In order to use the past perfect tense HAD SPENT, it must be the case that the action was COMPLETED before another past event.
In the sentence we are told that, by 1997 we're spending six hours a week performing chores.
There is nothing in the sentence to suggest that the action action of performing 6 hours of chores per week has been completed
As such we can't use the past perfect tense HAD SPENT

B) In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores; by 1997 that figure HAD GROWN to nearly six hours a week.
In this case we have the past perfect tense HAD GROWN.
Here we have a COMPLETED event that occurred in the past before some other past event was completed.
That is, 1997 has come and gone. So it is a past event.
BEFORE 1997, the figure regarding hours spent on chores each week, HAD GROWN from 2.5 to 6.
As such the past perfect tense works "perfectly" here :-)

Cheers,
Brent

Hi Brent,

Thank you so much for your thorough explanation,

Awesome,

I have the only problem with understanding the wrongly used Past Perfect in A. Could you elaborate on that with maybe some examples.

My intuition tells me that we could fix this sentence by replacing past perfect with past continuous,↓

In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores; by 1997 they were spending nearly six hours a week.

or Past simple if we replaced "by" with "in"

In 1981 children in the United States spent an average of slightly less than two and a half hours a week doing household chores; in 1997 they spent nearly six hours a week.


Thank you in advance,
gmat-admin's picture

Both of those fixes look fine to me.

Hi Brent,

Thank you very much,

You are an incredible teacher,

Hi Brent,

Could you please explain why E is correct and A is incorrect?

Unlike most other mergers in the utility industry, which have been driven by the need to save money and extend companies' service areas, the merger of the nation's leading gas and electric company is intended to create a huge marketing network for the utilities in question with states opening their utility markets to competition.


(A) and electric company is intended to create a huge marketing network for the utilities in question with states opening

(B) and electric companies are intended to create a huge network for marketing the utilities in question as states open

(C) and electric companies are intended to create a huge network that will be marketing the utilities in question, with states opening

(D) company and electric company are intending to create a huge marketing network for the utilities in question, with states opening

(E) company and leading electric company is intended to create a huge network for marketing the utilities in question as states open

Thank you in advance,
gmat-admin's picture

Answer choice A is incorrect, because we need two companies merging. Otherwise, it's not a merger.
We have: "... the merger of the nation's LEADING GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY"

In order to express the fact that TWO companies are merging, we should say something like: "...the merger of the nation’s leading gas company and leading electric company."

Answer choice E correctly specifies that two separate companies are merging.

Cheers,
Brent00

Thank you very much Brent for your help

Hi Brent,

Could you please explain why B and E are wrong and why D is correct:

Many airline carriers are attempting to increase profitability while keeping overhead low by offering, in terms of flights, an equal amount as last year, doing so by using larger planes that fly more efficiently.


(A) an equal amount as last year, doing so by

(B) the same number offered last year

(C) an equal amount offered last year and

(D) the same number as last year but

(E) an equal number as were offered last year,

It is from GematPrep EXAM number 4,

Thank you in advance,
gmat-admin's picture

Question link: https://gmatclub.com/forum/many-airline-carriers-are-attempting-to-incre...

The intended meaning: LAST YEAR, the airline carriers used smaller planes. THIS YEAR, to save money, the airline carriers are offering the same number of flights, but this year they are using larger planes.

(B) Many airline carriers are attempting to increase profitability while keeping overhead low by offering, in terms of flights, the same number offered LAST YEAR USING LARGER PLANES that fly more efficiently.
This sentence suggests that the carriers were USING larger planes LAST YEAR. Eliminate B

(E) Many airline carriers are attempting to increase profitability while keeping overhead low by offering, in terms of flights, AN EQUAL NUMBER as WERE offered last year, using larger planes that fly more efficiently.
Here we have a subject verb disagreement.
AN EQUAL NUMBER is singular and WERE OFFERED is plural.
Eliminate E.

Cheers,
Brent

Hi Brent,

You convinced me about E,

I still have a problem with B(I don't understand why it is wrong)

My intuition tells me that to fix B it could be rewritten this way:

Many airline carriers are attempting to increase profitability while keeping overhead low by offering, in terms of flights,  the same number as was offered last year, and by using larger planes that fly more efficiently. What do you think?

Can you also explain why D is correct:

Many airline carriers are attempting to increase profitability while keeping overhead low by offering, in terms of flights, the same number as last year but using larger planes that fly more efficiently


For me "the same number as last year" is ambiguous(don't we compare a number to a year? I know that the intended meaning is to compare a number offered this year to a number offered last year, for me the sentence should have been like this:


Many airline carriers are attempting to increase profitability while keeping overhead low by offering, in terms of flights, the same number as they were offering last year but using larger planes that fly more efficiently.

What do you think? Could you give me some examples in which such significant omission, when it comes to "the same as" structure, is used? Thank you in advance
gmat-admin's picture

Your fix for answer choice B looks great.

Yes, "the same number as last year" does appear to be comparing a NUMBER with LAST YEAR.
To be less ambiguous, we COULD write: "the same number THEY OFFERED last year"
However, this is a case in which the GMAT test-makers feel we can safely omit a word or two.
Even if we're not crazy about this omission, answer choice D is still the best that's your choice.

Thank you so much Brent for your time

Hi Brent, could you help me understand why Option D is incorrect here - https://gmatclub.com/forum/employment-costs-rose-2-8-percent-in-the-12-months-that-ended-in-septe-34690.html
gmat-admin's picture

Question link: https://gmatclub.com/forum/employment-costs-rose-2-8-percent-in-the-12-m...

In this question, we're comparing how much employment costs ROSE over the past 12 months with how much employment costs ROSE over a different time period.

Correct: Employment costs ROSE this year LESS THAN THEY DID last year.
In other words: This year, employment costs ROSE less than employment costs ROSE last year.

With answer choice D, we get: Employment costs ROSE this year LOWER THAN last year.
This makes no sense. First of all, we're missing either the word ROSE or a word meant to replace ROSE (e.g., DID)
Also, something can't rise lower than something else.

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