Lesson: Modifiers - Part III - "that" vs. "which"

Comment on Modifiers - Part III - "that" vs. "which"

very good; i love you raja. very very helpful and in a way that can be remembered easily

Soooooo helpful!!! Thank you guys!

1 A.The Car that is small is more economical to drive.
1 B.The car which is small is more economical to drive

2A The man that lives next door is a marathon runner.
2B Jack Trainer, who lives next door, is a marathon runner.

Is 1A and 2B right.
gmat-admin's picture

Given the right context, 1A and 1B can both be correct. However, 1B needs some commas (as in "The car, which is small, is more economical to drive")

1B is fine if it is already 100% clear which car we are talking about.

2B is fine, but for 2A, we should use "who" (for more on this see https://www.gmatprepnow.com/module/gmat-sentence-correction/video/1164)

Dear Brent,
Could you please help me with this question, this is from OG:
By developing the Secure Digital Music Initiative, the recording industry associations of North America, Japan, and Europe hope to create a standardized way of distributing songs and full-length recordings on the Internet that will protect copyright holders and foil the many audio pirates who copy and distribute digital music illegally.
(A) of distributing songs and full-length recordings on the Internet that will protect copyright holders and foil the many audio pirates who copy and distribute
(B) of distributing songs and full-length recordings on the Internet and to protect copyright holders and foiling the many audio pirates copying and distributing
(C) for distributing songs and full-length recordings on the Internet while it protects copyright holders and foils the many audio pirates who copy and distribute
(D) to distribute songs and full-length recordings on the Internet while they will protect copyright holders and foil the many audio pirates copying and distributing
(E) to distribute songs and full-length recordings on the Internet and it will protect copyright holders and foiling the many audio pirates who copy and distribute
gmat-admin's picture

There's a great (detailed) discussion of this question here: http://www.beatthegmat.com/by-developing-the-secure-digital-music-initia...

Love this so much!!

I finally know the difference.

Brent,
Can you please give your analysis of this question?
https://gmatclub.com/forum/australian-embryologists-have-found-evidence-that-suggests-84981.html

I narrowed it down to A & E. However since the word evidence is both singular and plural, I had trouble choosing the right answer. Morever, is the restrictive clause 'that' correctly used in A? Where did I go wrong?
gmat-admin's picture

Mitch (aka GMATGuruNY) provides a nice analysis here: http://www.beatthegmat.com/australian-embryologists-have-found-evidence-...

Also, Ceilidh and Ron have nice comment here: http://www.beatthegmat.com/need-help-to-understand-parallelism-t249154.html

If you'd like more help, let me know.

Hi Brent,

In question at below link ans choice E uses "that", I eliminated this option as we used when with time. Please let me know why I was wrong, in this case.


https://gmatclub.com/forum/although-various-eighteenth-and-nineteenth-century-american-88063.html


ans choice E) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying


Also I am struggling with place of only, almost, etc. Any rule to get it right?
gmat-admin's picture

The issues with this question are more about tense and modifiers than about that vs when.

Given your remarks, I'm assuming that you liked answer choice D)...it was not almost until 1900

ALMOST can be thought of as NOT QUITE or VERY NEARLY

So, in the sentence, the intent of the word ALMOST is to say that the timeframe is sometime just before 1900 (say 1897)

In answer choice D, the word NOT is negating the word ALMOST. In other words, this construction is saying that the timeframe is NOT ALMOST 1900. In other words, the timeframe is something other than the period just before 1900.

Answer choice E says "it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying"

Here ALMOST is next to the word it is modifying (1900). Also, NOT is correctly positioned to let us know that UNTIL 1900-ish, it was NOT the case that scholars and critics seriously began studying.

Does that help?

Cheers,
Brent

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